Actuators, 10 (11). Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute (MDPI)
High-level modeling languages facilitate system modeling and the development of control systems. This is mainly achieved by the automated handling of differential algebraic equations which describe the dynamics of the modeled systems across different physical domains. A wide selection of model libraries provides additional support to the modeling process. Nevertheless, deployment on embedded targets poses a challenge and usually requires manual modification and reimplementation of the control system. The novel proposed eFMI Standard (Functional Mock-up Interface for embedded systems) introduces a workflow and an automated toolchain to simplify the deployment of model-based control systems on embedded targets. This contribution describes the application and verification of the eFMI workflow using a vertical dynamics control problem with an automotive application as an example. The workflow is exemplified by a control system design process which is supported by the a-causal, multi-physical, high-level modeling language Modelica. In this process, the eFMI toolchain is applied to a model-based controller for semi-active dampers and demonstrated using an eFMI-based nonlinear prediction model within a nonlinear Kalman filter. The generated code was successfully tested in different validation steps on the dedicated embedded system. Additionally, tests with a low-volume production electronic control unit (ECU) in a series-produced car demonstrated the correct execution of the controller code under real-world conditions. The novelty of our approach is that it automatically derives an embedded software solution from a high-level multi-physical model with standardized eFMI methodology and tooling. We present one of the first full application scenarios (covering all aspects ranging from multi-physical modeling up to embedded target deployment) of the new eFMI tooling.
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