Design of safety-oriented control allocation strategies for over-actuated electric vehicles
Authors: de Castro, Ricardo and Tanelli, M. and Araujo, R.E. and Savaresi, S. M.
Vehicle System Dynamics, 52 (8). Taylor & Francis.
The new vehicle platforms for electric vehicles (EVs) that are becoming available are characterised by actuator redundancy, which makes it possible to jointly optimise different aspects of the vehicle motion. To do this, high-level control objectives are first specified and solved with appropriate control strategies. Then, the resulting virtual control action must be translated into actual actuator commands by a control allocation layer that takes care of computing the forces to be applied at the wheels. This step, in general, is quite demanding as far as computational complexity is considered. In this work, a safety-oriented approach to this problem is proposed. Specifically, a four-wheel steer EV with four in-wheel motors is considered, and the high-level motion controller is designed within a sliding mode framework with conditional integrators. For distributing the forces among the tyres, two control allocation approaches are investigated. The first, based on the extension of the cascading generalised inverse method, is computationally efficient but shows some limitations in dealing with unfeasible force values. To solve the problem, a second allocation algorithm is proposed, which relies on the linearisation of the tyre–road friction constraints. Extensive tests, carried out in the CarSim simulation environment, demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach.